Optimizing for Simplicity

In Jeet Kune-Do, one does not accumulate but eliminate. It is not daily increase but daily decrease. The height of cultivation always runs to simplicity. […] The height of cultivation is really nothing special. It is merely simplicity; the ability to express the utmost with the minimum. It is the halfway cultivation that leads to ornamentation.
— Bruce Lee

The old maxim “Keep It Simple, Stupid” is widely known, but unfortunately one of the most frequently violated best practices in software development. Why is simplicity so important?

Most developers assume that the reason why they shall keep their code simple is to get features out quicker, they should rather work on things that the customer urgently needs, things that provide immediate business value instead of letting him wait for the gold-plated version.

While there is nothing wrong with this interpretation, it doesn’t go far enough. Developers must strive for simplicity to achieve a high degree of maintainability: software development is an investment and software must be built such that not only today’s requirements but also future requirements can be implemented in an economic way. Don’t just think about a particular software product — think about how software evolves into a family of related products and versions over time. The most important reason for simplicity is to ensure that software can evolve with as little cost (aka. pain) as possible. Contrast this to the olden days of software development where developers added lots of flexibility up-front — flexibility that in most cases was never needed (YAGNI). These days, we rather keep it simple and adapt quickly, when the need arises.

Correctness comes first, no doubt, but the next priority is simplicity. Code must be simple such that it is easy to read and understand. Only code that is easy to comprehend can be maintained with little effort. Code that is complex (maybe because it is littered with unjustified optimizations and hard-to-grasp language features) makes changes hard and risky. Complex code is not an asset; it’s a liability that contributes to the overall technical debt.

One of today’s biggest challenges in software development is managing complexity. While there is little we can do about the essential (intrinsic) complexity of a software product, we constantly have to fight non-essential complexity; that is, complexity that arises as a side-effect, from the way we construct a software product.

So while developing code, constantly reflect and ask yourself what your code looks like, especially from another developer’s point of view. Is it easy to understand, does it even look mundane? Great! Resist the temptation to write clever code. Instead, take pride in being able to write the clearest, simplest code.

Don’t get me wrong. It’s OK to try out more complex designs and advanced language features — honing one’s skills is imperative. But always view such activities just as learning activities, like “playgrounding” and send your changes straight to /dev/null once you’re done. If you don’t have the heart to zap them, keep them on a private branch. But unless there is a compelling, justified reason you should take the high road and show true software development mastery by not integrating them with the code base.

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